Sunday, May 24, 2020

Poverty And Social Justice - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1573 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2019/04/08 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Social Justice Essay Did you like this example? Poverty is a problem that can be fixed for some Americans. They work, get paid, and spend their money wisely. Poverty can be viewed as a choice for some people based on their situations. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Poverty And Social Justice" essay for you Create order But what about those stuck in the limbo of poverty without assistance, stuck on the streets because they have no other options? There are many subcategories of people living in poverty, but I will be focusing on the subcategory of poverty due to mental illness. This is a serious issue that needs to be solved. In order to understand why this problem is important one must understand the history, statistics, barriers that cause poverty, and future solutions to solve this social justice issue. In 1882 a 61-year-old African American woman named Rebecca Smith froze to death on the streets of New York City on Tenth Avenue in her cardboard hut (Jones 141). Rebecca refused help from the Department of Mental Health during the cold season for shelter (Jones 141). To save Rebeccas life, the city signed a court order to get Rebecca of the streets (Jones 141). Unfortunately, this court order arrived a day too late (Jones 141). This saddening incident was written in the New York Times (Jones 141). With interviews from Rebeccas daughter the nation found out she was a talented pianist and valedictorian of her college but suffered from schizophasia (Jones 141). The nations skid row started to shift from white old men to a more diverse group of young people, African Americans, and people suffering from mental Illness (Jones 141). At the time Ronald Raegan was president and silently ignored this ongoing problem (Jones 141). To make matters even worse, the Raegan Administration also made budget cuts that affected the social research to figure out the causes of mentally ill homelessness and how to help them (Jones 151). Larry B Silver, who as a community Psychiatrist and the deputy director and active director of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) in the early 1980s, said It was a disastrous time for mental health. I dont know if we will ever recover from it (Jones 151). Nonetheless research continued (Jones 152). Research from the NIMH found that one third of the homeless community was mentally ill (Jones 154). In addition, Irene Shiften Levine, a Phycologist who worked for the NIMH community support system, was one of the leaders of this research and is known as the godmother of homelessness research (Jones 152, 154). She also created CHAMP, which provided the mentally ill homeless people with a clearance house (Jones 154). Levine also was part of service scale projects that reach out to extreme cases of mental illness among the homeless to provide proper care management (Jones 154). In 1987, the Stewart B. McKinley Homeless Assistance Act was reluctantly signed by Raegan due to the intense efforts of Levine (Jones 164). Both Democratic and Republican parties began to recognize the issue (Jones 164). Senator Pete Domenici of New Mexico whose daughter was diagnosed with schizophrenia, and senator Al gores wife also became advocates (Jones 164). This helped fund housing, healthcare, job training, and research funded projects based on mental illness, drug abuse and alcoholism among the homele ss (Jones 164). However, there are still issues with employment in the mentally ill homeless community. In the journal article Employment, Day Labor and, Shadow Work the author, Lei Lei states that there are four types of jobs: regular jobs, day jobs, peddling, and panhandling (Lei 254). A regular job is defined as a job that has regulated pay, time of arrival for each employee, and location of work (Lei 255). A day job is a job that does not have a set wage, specific timing of arrivals or a certain location for work (Lei 255-256). Peddling is selling what you own from clothes to beer, and panhandling is begging for money or drugs (Lei 258). According to Lei, people with mental illnesses have a lower employment rate (Lei 254). A statistic showed that having a mental illness can lower a persons chances of getting a job by 15% (Lei 264). To make matters worse, 34.1 percent of respondents reported having a mental illness in 2017 (Lei 263). The other three forms of work day labor, peddling, and panhandling did not show a significant increase or decrease in mentally ill homeless people bein g able to work based on the statistic (Lei 266-267). In order to fully understand what mentally ill people living in poverty are going through, one must understand their financial experiences. A research study article called Poverty Trajectories Experienced by persons with Mental Illness, by Abraham Forchuk, studies this topic under two objectives, what types of services help the mentally ill improve their financial situation, and what are the challenges and barriers that they encounter when trying to improve or maintain their financial status (Forchuk et al. 250). The study used three groups based on if their financial situation was improving, staying the same, or worsening (Forchuk et al. 250). Common facilators associated to all three groups include supportive relationships to boosts them up emotionally, part time work, and government supported income increases to help them financially (Forchuk et al. 254-255). Some of these facilators vary depending on which group each participant falls into (Forchuk et al. 255). For instance, participants who were financially getting worse or staying the same did not describe their experience of overcoming drugs and alcohol (Forchuk et al. 255). A possible reason is because they are still addicted and intertwined with drugs and alcohol potentially keeping or worsening their finances (Forchuk et al. 255-256). On the other hand, participants with a good financial status reported how they overcame addiction and their financial situation improved (Forchuk et al. 255). Lastly, education programs helped those stuck in the same financial situation (Forchuk et al. 256). One participant describes it as opening curtains where it is all dark (Forchuk et al. 256). Participants were also asked about the barriers that prevented them from financial success (Forchuk et al. 256). One of these barriers is the sense of hopelessness or powerlessness (Forchuk et al. 256). These participants felt or still feel like they are emotionally in a downward spiral paralyzing them from ma king changes in their life (Forchuk et al. 256). The future had nothing for them and there was no place to go (Forchuk et al. 256). Additionally, many participants realized they could relieve their problems with resources like welfare or food banks they could go to (Forchuk et al. 257). Yet with all this support, the stigma of having a mental illness caused them to be discriminated against others (Forchuk et al. 257). This could cause job related issues such as not being hired because of their disability or bosses not understanding how they need to accommodate themselves at work (Forchuk et al. 257). Do to these issues or this issue alone, education limitations can be a barrier (Forchuk et al. 258). Not being able to afford things like a text book (Forchuk et al. 250). Without education the impoverished mentally ill people can potentially not become financially stable (Forchuk et al. 258). Custody over children for some participants was inevitable in their situation (Forchuk et al. 258). A similar study focused on their specific needs such as having an enough food (Rudnick et al. 151). Having enough food is hard for people in poverty. Aware of soup kitchens and food banks they must ration what they are having, knowing what they are going to eat everyday (Rudnick et al. 151). Money constraints make it hard for these individuals to get food and their medication; leaving them to starve with their medications can increase its side effects (Rudnick et al. 151). The need for safe housing was also present in this study. When safety was increased, participants were more likely to get involved in self-promoting opportunities. Other participants who were in social housing described it to be a loud dump (Rudnick et al. 152). This kind of housing made them feel hopeless and stuck in the poor stereotype (Rudnick et al. 152). In conclusion, historical background of the impoverished with mental illnesses was really recognized during the Raegan era with help from the NIMHs research and Irene Levine. This history put forth the social justice issue of people in poverty with mental illnesses. Because of this further research was done to help eliminate the inequalities such as job discrimination due to a persons mental illness. To improve the quality of life for these people a study was done to highlight what promotes their financial success and what barriers keep them from achieving this goal. In efforts to alleviate future poverty, researchers have done and suggest continuing future intervention for people in poverty who are mentally ill (Forchuk et al. 250). Further research needs to be done to identify the pathways into and out of poverty for the mentally ill (Forchuk et al. 250). Hopefully, one day the world will fully accommodate those who did not make the choices but were forced into poverty. Work Cited Forchuk, Cheryl, et al. Poverty Trajectories Experienced by Persons with Mental Illness. Journal of Poverty, vol. 21, no. 3, May 2017, pp. 247264. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/10875549.2016.1186772. JONES, MARIAN MOSER. Creating a Science of Homelessness During the Reagan Era. Milbank Quarterly, vol. 93, no. 1, Mar. 2015, pp. 139178. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1111/1468-0009.12108. Lei, Lei. Employment, Day Labor, and Shadow Work Among Homeless Assistance Clients in the United States. Journal of Poverty, vol. 17, no. 3, July 2013, pp. 253272. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/10875549.2013.804479. Rudnick, Abraham, et al. Perspectives of Social Justice among People Living with Mental Illness and Poverty: A Qualitative Study. The Journal of Poverty and Social Justice, vol. 22, no. 2, 2014, pp. 147-157. ProQuest, https://rose.scranton.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1948398638?accountid=28588, doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.1332/175982714X14007697173759.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Concrete Homes - Best Bet on a Windy Day

When hurricanes and typhoons howl, the greatest danger to people and property is flying debris. Carried at such intense velocity, a 2 x 4 piece of lumber will become a missile that can slice through walls. When an EF2 tornado moved through central Georgia in 2008, a board from an awning was ripped off, took flight across the street, and impaled itself deep into an adjacent solid concrete wall. FEMA tells us this is a common wind-related event and recommends the building of safe rooms. Researchers at the National Wind Institute of Texas Tech University in  Lubbock have determined that concrete walls are strong enough to withstand flying debris from hurricanes and tornadoes. According to their findings, homes made of concrete are much more storm-resistant than houses constructed of wood or even wood studs with steel plates. The ramifications of these research studies are changing the way we build. The Research Study The Debris Impact Facility at Texas Tech is well-known for its pneumatic cannon, a device capable of launching various materials of different sizes at different speeds. The cannon is in a laboratory, a controlled environment, To duplicate hurricane-like conditions in the laboratory, researchers shot wall sections with 15-pound 2 x 4 lumber missiles at up to 100 mph, simulating debris carried in a 250 mph wind. These conditions cover all but the most severe tornadoes. Hurricane wind speeds are less than the speeds modeled here. Missile tests designed to demonstrate damage from hurricanes use a 9-pound missile traveling about 34 mph. Researchers tested 4 x 4-foot sections of concrete block, several types of insulating concrete forms, steel studs, and wood studs to rate performance in high winds. The sections were finished as they would be in a completed home: drywall, fiberglass insulation, plywood sheathing, and exterior finishes of vinyl siding, clay brick, or stucco. All of the concrete wall systems survived the tests with no structural damage. Lightweight steel and wood stud walls, however, offered little or no resistance to the missile. The 2 x 4 ripped through them. Intertek, a commercial product and performance testing company, has also done research with their own canon at Architectural Testing Inc. They point out that the safety of a concrete home can be deceptive if the house is built with unreinforced concrete block, which offers some protections but not total. Recommendations Reinforced concrete homes have proven their wind-resistance in the field during tornadoes, hurricanes, and typhoons. In Urbana, Illinois, a home constructed with insulating concrete forms (ICFs) withstood a 1996 tornado with minimal damage. In the Liberty City area of Miami, several concrete form homes survived Hurricane Andrew in 1992. In both cases, neighboring homes were destroyed. In the fall of 2012, Hurricane Sandy blew apart the older wood construction homes on the New Jersey coast, leaving alone the newer townhouses built with insulating concrete forms. Monolithic domes, which are made of concrete and rebar in one piece, have proven especially strong. The sturdy concrete construction combined with the dome shape make these innovative homes nearly impervious to tornadoes, hurricanes, and earthquakes. Many people cannot get over the look of these homes, however, although some brave (and wealthy) homeowners are experimenting with more modern designs. One such futuristic design has a hydraulic lift to actually move the structure below the ground before a tornado strikes. Researchers at Texas Tech University recommend that houses in tornado-prone areas build in-residence shelters of either concrete or  heavy gauge sheet-metal. Unlike hurricanes, tornadoes come with little warning, and reinforced interior rooms can offer more safety than an exterior storm shelter. Other advice researchers offer is to design your home with a hip roof instead of a gable roof, and everyone should use  hurricane straps to keep the roof on and the timbers straight. Concrete and Climate Change — More Research To make concrete, you need cement, and its well-known that the manufacturing of cement releases great amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere during the heating process. The building trade is one of the largest contributors to climate change, and cement makers and the people who purchase their product are some of the largest contributors to what we know to be greenhouse gas pollution. Research on new production methods will no doubt be met with resistance from a very conservative industry, but at some point consumers and governments will make new processes affordable and necessary. One company trying to find solutions is Calera Corporation of California. They have focused on recycling CO2 emissions into the production of a calcium carbonate cement. Their process uses the chemistry found in nature — what formed the White Cliffs of Dover and the shells of marine organisms? Researcher David Stone accidentally discovered an iron carbonate-based concrete when he was a graduate student at the University of Arizona. IronKast Technologies, LLC is in the process of commercializing Ferock and Ferrocrete, made from steel dust and recycled glass. Ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) known as Ductal ® has been used successfully by Frank Gehry in the Louis Vuitton Foundation Museum in Paris and by architects Herzog de Meuron in the Pà ©rez Art Museum Miami (PAMM). The strong, thin concrete is expensive, but its a good idea to watch what the Pritzker Laureate architects are using, as they are often the first experimenters. Universities and government entities continue to be the incubators for new materials, researching and engineering composites with different properties and better solutions. And its not just concrete  Ã¢â‚¬â€ the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory has invented a glass substitute, a transparent, tough-as-armor ceramic called spinel (MgAl2O4). Researchers at MITs Concrete Sustainability Hub are also concentrating their attention on cement and its microtexture  Ã¢â‚¬â€ as well as the cost-effectiveness of these new and expensive products. Why You Might Want to Hire an Architect Building a home to withstand natures fury is not a simple task. The process is neither a construction nor design problem alone. Custom builders can specialize in insulated concrete rorms (ICF), and even give their end-products safe-sounding names like Tornado Guard, but architects can design beautiful buildings with evidence-based material specifications for builders to use. Two questions to ask if you are not working with an architect are 1. Does the construction company have architects on staff? and 2. Has the company financially sponsored any of the research testing? The professional field of architecture is more than sketches and floor plans. Texas Tech University even offers a Ph.D. in Wind Science and Engineering. Sources Inline photo link of Georgia tornado by Mike Moore/FEMA PhotoStorm Shelter Research and Storm Shelter FAQs, National Wind Institute, Texas Tech University [accessed November 20, 2017]A summary report on Debris Impact Testing at Texas Tech University, Prepared by Wind Science and Engineering Research Center, June 2003, PDF at https://www.depts.ttu.edu/nwi/research/DebrisImpact/Reports/DIF_reports.pdf [accessed November 20, 2017]Guidance for Wind Resistant Residential Design, Construction Mitigation, Larry J. Tanner, P.E., NWI Research Assistant Professor, Debris Impact Facility, National Wind Institute, Texas Tech University, PDF at http://www.depts.ttu.edu/nwi/research/DebrisImpact/Reports/GuidanceforWindResistantResidentialDesign.pdf [accessed November 20, 2017]Hurricane-Proof Construction Methods Can Prevent the Destruction of Communities,  Zach Mortice, Redshift by AutoDesk, November 9, 2017, https://www.autodesk.com/redshift/hurricane-proof-construction-methods-can-save-buildi ngs-communities/ [accessed November 20, 2017]

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Psychological Theories of Delinquency Free Essays

In his article, Kelley discusses the Psychology of Mind theory, or POM, which was created using the work of Banks (1983, 1989); Mills (1990); Mills Pransky (1993); Suarez (1985); Suarez Mills (1982); and Suarez, Mills, Stewart (1987), which focuses strongly on original or unconditioned though, which is a though process that takes into account principles and reasoning that is automatic through common sense and positive thought. As well as reactive thought, which requires a deliberate thought process, and is a decision, which is made without taking into account consequences or considering other options (1996). Psychology of the mind theory proposes that the offenders percentages of responsive thinking versus conditioned thinking is that of which determines his or her level of mental health as well as their risk for criminality or delinquency (Kelley, 1996). We will write a custom essay sample on Psychological Theories of Delinquency or any similar topic only for you Order Now According to the Psychology of Mind theory, juveniles actions are based off of how conscious they are of their actions. If a juvenile finds them self in a situation and takes the time to consciously think about their actions, they generally act in a positive way. It is when a juvenile is in a situation where they act without thinking about the consequences where it is possible for a deviant decision can be made (Banks 1983, 1989). Kelley states that one’s level of insecurity directly correlates to their style of thinking. If an offender feels insecure in a situation and thinks reactively, they are more likely to think reactively and engage in deviant or delinquent behavior. Where as if an offender feels insecure in a situation and thinks responsively, they will be less likely to partake in delinquent behavior. Kelley points to the fact that one with a high level of self-esteem will be a lot less likely to make a decision that may lead to a delinquent act than one with a lower level of self-esteem based. This is based on the fact that one who has a higher level of self-esteem naturally wants to maintain that higher level of self-confidence and will be less likely to partake in an act to jeopardize that level of self-esteem. Where as one with a lower level of self-esteem may be willing to commit a delinquent act to increase their self-confidence (1996). In a separate article, a study performed on one hundred and ninety-nine male participants and ninety female participants, all juveniles of which were incarcerated within a juvenile correction facility, Kerig, Ward, Vanderzee, and Moeddel examined the correlation between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and the juvenile’s delinquency. In a related literature that assesses the effects of PTSD on adolescence, its author, Nader(2008) states, â€Å"Following traumatic experiences, a significant number of children react in ways that substantially disrupt or impair their and their family’s lives, their growth and development, and their abilities to function normally† and thus, unresolved trauma â€Å"may seriously derail a youth’s life path; task, work, or academic performance; and well-being† (p. 3) According to Ford et al (2006), prolonged exposure to traumatic experiences has the potential to cause a juvenile’s brain exhaustion and a lesser ability to cope with situations. This in turn may lead to problems within a juvenile’s mental development, including lower self-esteem, self-respect, and interpersonal trust. A juvenile may engage in â€Å"survival coping†, which may include acting out, and other defiant acts, in an attempt to hide their inner feelings of despair. Juveniles then may progress to more aggressive forms and a lack of consciousness pertaining to the negative effects of the deviant acts that they are partaking in. According to Landsford et al (2006), after a traumatic exposure, a juvenile may partake in delinquent acts or deviant behavior as a way of numbing their feelings and attempting to get away from the awareness of their stress. The results of the study performed by Kerig, Ward, Vanderzee, and Moeddel (2009) show that juvenile males that were incarcerated reported that prior to incarceration they had experienced community violence, domestic violence, witnessed domestic violence, and had been effected by the death of a loved one. Thirty-six males had claimed to had experienced the death of a loved one, thirty-six other males had experienced community violence, twenty males had experienced domestic violence, and eighteen males had witnessed community violence. The highest reported traumatic experience from females incarcerated at the facility was that of sexual abuse, where nineteen females reported that they had been sexually abused prior to being incarcerated. Sixteen females experienced domestic violence, and eleven females experienced the death of a loved one. According to Wolf et al (2006), many adolescents already display risk taking behaviors and are more likely to partake in the use of substances or delinquent acts, because during this time you are in a transition from youth toward adulthood and are becoming familiar with your self. However, juveniles who have been exposed to traumatic experiences such as domestic violence, sexual assault, or other events that may cause Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, it may be more likely that they will partake in more heinous acts of delinquency or criminality because may have a lesser ability to cope with their feelings and may mask them through these deviant acts. How to cite Psychological Theories of Delinquency, Papers

Monday, May 4, 2020

Natural Resource Management

Question: Discuss about the Natural Resource Management. Answer: Introduction: In Australia, NRM is managed by the department of Natural Resources and Mines. Their work involves sustainable and responsible use of the natural resources of the state like, water, land, minerals, and energy. Their policies and programs are directed towards the sustainable use of the natural resources keeping in mind the greater need of the community ("What we do", 2016). In Queensland, the natural resources are facing a lot of threats which need to be solved. The regional groups are trying their best to make judicious use of the natural resources ("www.rgc.org.au", 2016). The articles of Lockwood, and Lockwood and Davidson trace the governance principles and NRM policies followed in the Australian context. In the article of Lockwood, the author speaks of the eight principles on the basis of which NRM policies can be formed (Lockwood, 2010). In the article of Davidson and Lockwood, the current governance policies in Australia are discussed (Lockwood Davidson, 2009). Critical analysis: Article of Lockwood: The article of Lockwood deals mainly with the eight principles on the basis of which the NRM policies and programs are to be framed. These eight principles have been formed on the basis of the recommendations of the experts, principles gathered from related literature and articles and collecting data from thirteen Australian NRM government authorities (Lockwood, 2010). The eight principles are as follows: Legitimacy: The author states that legitimacy basically implies who is legally authorized to formulate the policies of NRM. In a democratic government the power generally rests with the Government. This power, however, can be delegated to local governments and statutory authorities. The legitimate authorities must prove their efficiency through the fulfillment of their responsibilities honestly (Lockwood, 2010). Transparency: Transparency refers to clarity in the decision making process and it also ensures that the information of the policies and programs is easily accessible to the stakeholders (Lockwood, 2010). Accountability: Accountability entails that the authorities are responsible for and performing their duties. There can be two kinds of accountability: vertical and horizontal. The author states that in case of Australia, accountability is one sided. The author also argues that the authorities must follow rules and regulations while performing their duties (Lockwood, 2010). Inclusiveness: Inclusiveness denotes that all the stakeholders are involved in the decision making processes. There are certain issues in the NRM which needs the opinions and suggestions of all those who are concerned. This ensures the active participation and consultation of the various stakeholders (Lockwood, 2010). Fairness: Fairness indicates that the opinions of the stakeholders are given their due respect. It also denotes that here should be consistency in the decision making process (Lockwood, 2010). Integration: Integration means the connection between the different tiers of the government so that there is no lack of co ordination between them with regards to the policies and programs formulated (Lockwood, 2010). Capability: Capability denotes that the incumbent authorities are capable of delivering their responsibilities (Lockwood, 2010). Adaptability: Adaptability means that new knowledge gathered in the process of data collection is incorporated in the decision making. The forthcoming risks need to be anticipated and associated with the programs to be devised (Lockwood, 2010). Article of Lockwood and Davidson: The article of Lockwood and Davidson directly deals with the conditions prevalent in Australian context. The prevalent scenario in Australia has seen decentralization of power where the government has delegated powers to communities and individuals. The government has introduced hybrid practices to address the environmental challenges. Structurally, the Australian government has three tiers among which the responsibility of formulation of NRM rests with the middle tier, that is, the state governments. The Central government has allocated funding to the state governments for the formulation of NRM policies (Lockwood Davidson, 2009). In case of Queensland, the state government has allotted about $80 million to the Regional Natural Resource Management Investment Program for the period 2013-2018 which also included funding for the preservation of the Great Barrier Reef. This funding is provided to the regional management bodies for the NRM project. These projects deal with the preservation and protection of natural resources like water ways and rangelands (Department of Natural Resources and Mines, 2016). Three basic components shape the Australian NRM governance- neoliberalism, ecocentrism and localism (Lockwood Davidson, 2009). Neoliberalism is essentially utilitarian in its outlook. According to this perspective, the natural resources need to be protected to ensure productivity of the natural resources. This neoliberalism exists side by side with ecocentrism. Ecocentrism underlines the intrinsic value of nature. Localism implies maintenance of the distinctive and unique local environment. According to Lockwood and Davidson, neoliberalism has lead to distancing of the government from the local governing bodies. As a matter of fact, these governing bodies are shown to be more concerned with their own interests rather than taking care of the biodiversity (Lockwood Davidson, 2009). In Queensland, there are about fourteen regional groups working under the state government ("Queensland Regional Natural Resource Management Investment Program - 2013 to 2018", 2016) (See Appendix I) The article also focuses on the deployment of modern technologies in the implementation of the policies and regulations. The neoliberal approach in Australia forced the local peasants to join the regional NRM bodies. However, if they do to want to participate, they would not be able to get hold of the funding provided by the government (Lockwood Davidson, 2009). Comparatively, ecocentrism gave moral persuasion to the individuals where they were independent agents playing their role responsibly in preserving the elements of nature. Localism, however, is more akin to neoliberalism in its approach. It is said that the local communities can take care of their environment in a better way than the government. Hence, the neoliberal policies along with localism may go a long way for the protection of the diverse biodiversity of Australia (Lockwood Davidson, 2009).. Achievements and areas of concern of NRM in Queensland: The Great Barrier Reef: Figure: 1 The Great Barrier Reef is one of the most delicate ecosystems in the world. The Australian Government has allocated $140 million dollar for the Reef Trust. $100 million dollar was additionally received from the Queensland Government ("What Australia is doing to manage the Great Barrier Reef | Department of the Environment and Energy", 2016). Natural Vegetation: Figure: 2 In case of Natural Vegetation of Australia, it has suffered greatly due to various factors. According to the Bushland Destruction report, about 278,000 hectares of natural vegetation has been cleared in the period 2013-14 ("Queenslands tree-clearing map of shame", 2016). The report also states that several endangered trees have been cut down in the absence of proper rules and regulations. The Department of Natural Resources and Mines said that there are about 64 cases where the reason behind the clearing of natural vegetation is unclear ("Queenslands tree-clearing map of shame", 2016). Its upto the Queensland Government to take care of the unique natural vegetation and take proper steps towards its conservation. Animal life: Figure: 3 Worldwide climatic change has adversely affected the wildlife of the rainforests of Queensland. Almost 60% of the rainforest species is said to be critically endangered due to global warming ("Wildlife of Australia's Cloud Forest", 2016). Its up to the various NRM groups to formulate legislations and policies to make sure that the unique animal species are not obliterated from the face off the earth. Conclusion: The Queensland Government is dedicated to the protection and conservation of the biodiversity that is unique to the country. Various principles are followed based on which the government formulates the rules and regulations. The government has faced a lot of challenges in this field. As a result, the regional bodies have seen both achievements as well as failures. Proper steps have been taken to prevent the degradation and misuse of the valuable natural resources of Queensland. Each natural resource has been given minute attention by forming various regional bodies. With the proper combination of neoliberalism, ecocentrism and localism, Australia can achieve a more sustainable future. References: Lockwood M., Davidson J., Curtis A., Stratford E. Griffith R. (2010) Governance Principles for Natural Resource Management, Society Natural Resources: An International Journal Retrieved 13 January 2014, from https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08941920802178214 Lockwood, M., Davidson, J. (2010). Environmental governance and the hybrid regime of Australian natural resource management.Geoforum,41(3), 388-398. Queensland Regional Natural Resource Management Investment Program - 2013 to 2018. (2016). Department of Natural Resources and Mines. Retrieved 26 August 2016, from https://www.dnrm.qld.gov.au/land-and-property/natural-resource-management/nrm-investment-program Queensland Regional Natural Resource Management Investment Program - 2013 to 2018. (2016). Department of Natural Resources and Mines. Retrieved 26 August 2016, from https://www.dnrm.qld.gov.au/land-and-property/natural-resource-management/nrm-investment-program Queenslands tree-clearing map of shame. (2016). Wwf.org.au. Retrieved 26 August 2016, from https://www.wwf.org.au/?14520/Queenslands-tree-clearing-map-of-shame Regional NRM organisations | National Landcare Programme. (2016). Nrm.gov.au. Retrieved 26 August 2016, from https://www.nrm.gov.au/regional/regional-nrm-organisations What Australia is doing to manage the Great Barrier Reef | Department of the Environment and Energy. (2016). Environment.gov.au. Retrieved 26 August 2016, from https://www.environment.gov.au/marine/gbr/publications/what-australia-is-doing What we do. (2016). Department of Natural Resources and Mines. Retrieved 26 August 2016, from https://www.dnrm.qld.gov.au/our-department/about-us/what-we-do Wildlife of Australia's Cloud Forest. (2016). Earthwatch.org. Retrieved 26 August 2016, from https://earthwatch.org/expeditions/wildlife-of-australias-rainforest www.rgc.org.au. (2016). www.rgc.org.au. Retrieved 26 August 2016, from https://www.rgc.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/NRM-achievements-across-Queensland-2011.pdf

Monday, March 30, 2020

Analysis of The Cool Web by Robert Graves Essay Essay Example

Analysis of The Cool Web by Robert Graves Essay Essay Example Analysis of The Cool Web by Robert Graves Essay Essay Analysis of The Cool Web by Robert Graves Essay Essay Why is the rubric of the verse form â€Å"The cool web† ? Give a ground for your reply. The verse form discusses an adult’s sensitivity to utilize lingual sleight to avoid the effects of utmost emotion. The rubric combines two words. â€Å"cool† and â€Å"web† . each of which evokes a strong feeling. to make a 3rd even more redolent image. There are many English looks which use the word â€Å"cool† to convey quashing emotion. This use is similar to utilizing â€Å"calm† : â€Å"cool down† . â€Å"don’t lose your cool† . â€Å"go and cool off† . â€Å"cool it! † and so on. Even the slang reading of â€Å"cool† in the sense of stylish or sophisticated conjures up the thought of a relaxed and insouciant attitude. In the context of the verse form. â€Å"cool† can be seen as synonymous with a deficiency of passion and an addition of self-denial. â€Å"Web† is used to convey the sense of being enveloped by a bed which inhibits freedom. Graves could hold used â€Å"net† or â€Å"mesh† . nevertheless those words lack the sinister intension of the most common usage of â€Å"web† : that of a â€Å"spider’s web† . In this sense. there is an air of exposure and threat ; the spider’s quarry has non chosen to be caught in the web. but is ensnared however. The combination of â€Å"cool† and â€Å"web† creates an image of forced calm. The â€Å"cool web† is a lingual leukotomy which life imposes on world. What is the consequence of the repeat of ‘hot’ and ‘dreadful’ in the first stanza? The first stanza creates a threatening atmosphere. The adjectives used are intense: the twenty-four hours is non warm. it is hot ; the eventide is non dark. but black ; the soldiers are full of apprehension. non merely dismaying. ( Although now used in the same manner as terrorization. â€Å"dreadful† truly depict a greater degree of terror. ) This development of threat is further emphasised by the repeat of the â€Å"hot† and â€Å"dreadful† . The point is driven place to the reader. If Graves had used equivalent word – vesicating for â€Å"hot† and scaring for â€Å"dreadful† – in the 2nd cases of each. the significance would be basically unchanged. However. the sound and beat of the stanza would be significantly affected. The consequence is besides assisted by reiterating non merely â€Å"hot† . but the vowel rhyme and initial rhyme of the phrase â€Å"how hot† . The repeat and accent of â€Å"hot† in lines 1 and 2 besides provides contrast between the word â€Å"cool† in the rubric and â€Å"chill† in line 5. â€Å"Cool† and â€Å"coldly† are besides used in the organic structure of the verse form in contrast to â€Å"hot† . ( This accent through repeat is used a figure of times: in the 2nd stanza with â€Å"spell† ; in line 10 with â€Å"too much† and in the last stanza with â€Å"facing†. ) Who are ‘we’ in the 2nd stanza ( line 5 ) ? The usage of â€Å"but† at the beginning of line 5 contrasts â€Å"we† from the kids of the first stanza and presumptively Graves hence means grownups. Adults have a more sophisticated bid of linguistic communication with which to construe events. Children are direct in their attack to the universe and do non try to befog world for any ground. On run intoing an fleshy individual. a immature kid will cheerfully inquire them why they are so fat. An grownup would be improbable to initiate the topic at all. Children merely province what they think ; grownups use euphemisms and oblique vocabulary to guard off unwelcome emotions. Remark on the usage of: The adjectives ‘cruel’ to depict the rose’s aroma and ‘overhanging’ to depict the dark ( lines 6 and 7 ) . The reader is jolted as these adjectives are associated with unfamiliar topics. This is a signifier of highlighting to pull attending to the linguistic communication of the verse form. The usage of â€Å"cruel† to depict the aroma of a rose is particularly clashing. Almost without exclusion the rose is a symbol of love affair and love. non one of inhuman treatment. Graves seems to be connoting that anything that intrudes – even something pleasant – is obnoxious and to be â€Å"dulled† . By depicting the dark as â€Å"overhanging† Graves refers to the sense of bullying. of something unexpected looming over us. The poet so tells us that this should – and can be – be spelled off as unwanted. The verb ‘spell’ in the phrase ‘we enchantment away’ ( lines 7 and 8 ) Graves exploits a dual significance of â€Å"spell† to entwine the thoughts of linguistic communication and hocus-pocus. In the lingual context â€Å"spell† means to organize a word by set uping its component letters in the right order. ‘Spell† besides means to act upon person or something by agencies of charming powers. In this manner. the poet concentrates a figure of images into a individual word. An adult’s desire to belie world is a signifier of charming enchantment. but it requires the ability to spell words. ( Graves besides uses this technique in line 1 by depicting kids as â€Å"dumb† . This could intend that they are stupid and hence unable to pull strings and falsify the universe. It could besides intend that kids have no lingual module as in â€Å"deaf and dumb. † Of class. he means both. ) Explain how. in your sentiment. ‘the cool web’ may protect one against ‘too much joy or excessively much fear’ ( lines 5 to 11 ) . â€Å"The cool web† of linguistic communication is used to rationalize utmost emotions. Alternatively of responding instinctively to a state of affairs. we can submerge it in long-winded accounts. From dais to parliament. and from attorney to liar. we use linguistic communication to falsify world to accommodate ourselves. It is done linguistic communication that we can carry ourselves that the noise we hear in the dark is merely the cat and non a violent burglar. This is the footing for Graves’s mention to withdrawing from â€Å"too much fright. † Less obvious is the desire to protect ourselves from â€Å"too much joy† . a status that would look to be desirable. Possibly the poet believes that we are unable to get by adequately with either extreme of luck. There are a figure of superstitious notions in this respect such as labelling something as being â€Å"too good to be true† . It may be that Graves is proposing that we subconsciously know that we can’t prolong a province of delectation for long and that the hurting of the resulting letdown is non deserving the minute of joy. It reflects a low-risk paradigm where we would predate the highs to avoid the subsequent inevitable depressions. What indicants are at that place in stanza 4 to demo us what the speaker’s attitude is towards such protection? The phrases â€Å"self-possession† and â€Å"throwing off† show us that the talker believes that the protection which linguistic communication offers is an infliction and non a natural province of personal businesss. He notes that this implemented state of affairs controls us for our whole life until we die. While connoting that this protection is a load. Graves besides tells us that without it we would travel huffy. In other words. this protection is a necessary immorality. Why do mentions to the twenty-four hours. the rose. the dark and the soldiers recur throughout the verse form? These words occur in the first. 2nd and 4th ( last ) stanzas. The repeat in the 2nd stanza and the 4th stanza fulfil different intents. The mention in the 2nd stanza forms the footing for a contrast with the initial mention in the first stanza. In the first stanza these objects are described via a child’s simple mentality: hot and awful. In the 2nd stanza the same words are described via an adult’s more complex. language-distorted position. The last stanza has a different signifier than the first three ; it breaks a form of 4-line stanzas and. by making so. demands excess attending from the reader. In this last stanza the words â€Å"day† . â€Å"rose† . â€Å"night† and â€Å"drums† are listed merely without adjectives. This neatly reminds the reader of the beginning of the verse form and completes the comparing between kids and grownups. and their differing usage of linguistic communication. Briefly province the speaker’s decision about the function of linguistic communication in our lives ( lines 13 to 18 ) . The talker concludes that we need linguistic communication to protect ourselves from the world of life. Graves provinces that without the capacity for carrying ourselves that state of affairss are non what they appear. we would happen it impossible to get by and would travel huffy. The enunciation ( pick of words ) . construction. beat and tone of the first and last stanzas are markedly different. What do you believe the intent of these differences is? The first three stanzas have a comparatively simple rhyme strategy of A B C C. The consequence of lines 3 and 4 of each of these stanzas rhyming is that each stanza is concluded steadfastly. Three stanzas with the same construction creates a form and an outlook that the following stanza will be the same. The fact that it is non is a surprise and a type of highlighting. The last stanza has a rime of A B C D C D and this difference in construction alerts the reader and demands extra attending. This warning is welcome as the message in the last stanza is far more direct than antecedently where metaphor and allusion are used. The last line provinces unambiguously â€Å"we shall travel huffy no uncertainty. † It is in this last stanza that Graves delivers his opinion on our usage of linguistic communication.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

The Native American Culture In The Red Convertible Essays

The Native American Culture In The Red Convertible Essays The Native American Culture In The Red Convertible The Native American Culture in The Red Convertible In the short story The Red Convertible, by Louise Erdrich, the author, contrasts the old way of life versus the new. Erdrich does this through metaphorical symbols: the color red, convertible, summer trip, and the fancy dance Henry performs before his death (Erdrich p. 468). In the story, the color red symbolizes many things. The convertible is red. Lyman also said his brother, had a nose big and sharp as a hatchet, like the nose on Red Tomahawk (Erdrich p. 467). Also when the brothers took their final journey Lyman says, We started off east, toward Pembina and the Red River (Erdrich p. 467). The color red, in this story, represents Henry's will to be free. The convertible appears in a bright red because, while driving the car, Henry feels trapped by the white man's war (Erdrich p. 467). By returning to the Red River Henry regains his spiritual freedom. According to The American Heritage book of Indians, the Red Sticks were and anti-American faction that fought to keep the white man out, and their heritage strong (p. 221). With this information, the Red Sticks, and the color red, represented in the story can be linked in their feelings with anti-Americanism (The American Heritage book of Indians p. 221). Lyman says, He said he wanted to give the car to me for good now, it was no use (Erdrich p. 468). By Henry giving Lyman the red convertible, he is foreshadowing his death. In the Chippawa culture gifts are given to the family of the deceased (The Chippawas of Lake Superior p. 16). A remnant of the deceased was kept, wrapped in birch bark, this spirit bundle was then kept for a year and later given to the family (The Chippawas of Lake Superior p. 16). Lyman knows that Henry is preparing him for Henry's death by giving him the car. Lyman states, No way. I don't want it, referring to the car (Erdrich p. 468). Lyman refuses this gift because he does not want Henry to die. The red convertible also represents a curative charm (The Chippawas of Lake Superior p. 19). In the Chippawa culture, a charm was given to the injured or diseased. This charm was used in many ways to: stimulate love, attract wealth, insure a successful journey, and to counteract evil (The Chippawas of Lake Superior p. 1 9). The charm consisted of an artifact that represented the individual or a figurine (The Chippawas of Lake Superior p. 19). The car was Henry's charm form Lyman. Lyman states, I thought the car might bring the old Henry back somehow (Erdrich p. 466). Lyman could see Henry was sick, so by reconnection Henry with the car, he thought the Henry would get better. To understand why the brothers took tow trips, one to Alaska, and the other at the end of the story, the Nomadic lifestyle of the Chippawas must be examined. The Chippawas led a seminomadic life, dependent upon the seasons (The Chippawas of Lake Superior p. 10). At the beginning of the story, Henry and Lyman venture off for the summer. The brothers end up in Alaska, which symbolizes their search for new hunting ground (The Chippawas of Lake Superior p. 11). The final journey, that the boys embark on, represents Henry's return to nature. Lyman identifies Henry's feeling by stating, When everything starts changing, drying up, clearing off, you feel like your whole life is starting. Henry felt it too (Erdrich p. 467). When Henry and Lyman reach their final destination, something comes over Henry. Lyman identifies this change when he states, I think it's the old Henry (Erdrich p. 468). However, Lyman doesn't understand Henry's next move when he says, He throws off his jacket and starts springing his legs up form the knees like a fancy dancer...He's wild (Erdrich p. 468). To understand Henry's fancy dancing, the reader must be aware of the cultural ties the Chippawa have to dancing. The origin of the Chippawa dancing drum is told through an old legend (The Ojibwa Dance Drum p. 44). The legend begins with an old Indian woman, who lost her four sons

Thursday, February 20, 2020

The Press. Role of the media in the Vietnam war Essay

The Press. Role of the media in the Vietnam war - Essay Example Television (TV) in the mid-1960 was considered to be one of the main sources of news to the Americans. Thus as the Vietnam war was proceeding most Americans turned to the TV as their primary source of news. Intense visuals of the war helped explain the complex nature of the Vietnam war to the Americans who could not understand the military's technical language. The Vietnam war took place between 1957 to 1975. It's the most unpopular war of the 20th century. It resulted in more than 60,000 deaths of American soldiers and between 2 to 4 million Vietnamese deaths. The various TV networks set permanent bureaus in Saigon. By 1968 during the Tet Offensive, 86% of NBC and CBS nightly news programs covered the war. The media were generally supportive of Americans in the war. By 1967, 90% of the nightly news was devoted to the news. Gradually support for the war began to reduce. The military didn’t establish media censorship, thus the journalists could follow the military to the battle fields and reported what they saw. They presented the public with graphic images of what they saw. The turning point of the media support occurred in the late of January 1968 during the Tet Offensive. The public got information first hand from the journalist rather than the military personnel. Thus the media were not biased in showing the American forces deaths and the wounded soldiers. The most damaging the massacre that occurred at My Lai. American forces killed more than 350 civilians, thus introducing the subject of war crimes to the population.